Ayodhya: Development of cultural field
Ancient timeIn vadyatri there is no apparent description about Ayodhya or not even Kshladesh. Only description about capital is found in Arthrveda. In it description about Ayodhya is that, gods made city which is very prosperous. There is written in Arthrveda that (the city made by gods has 8 palace, nine doors and treasure surrounded by iron. It is prosperous as heaven).
The geographical description about Ayodhya has described in Ramayana. - It was 12yogen in length and 3yogen in breadth. Here was road to go out other city was clear. According to Knighm it perimeter should be 24mile instead of 100or 12 yogen. In west from Guptar ferry to Ram Ferry in east there is a strait line which is 6 mile and if we assume it was spread over middle field with sub city and with garden then it become half of 12 kosh. In present time lay man indicates towards Guptar ferry and Ram ferry which is west end and east end of ancient city. And according to them south end is spread till 6mile near Barat pond. But all these come under pilgrimage place places so layman takes it as a part of ancient city. This become more clear by 14koshi surrounding road. That time main portion of city was Ramkot (ram palace). For development of city this part which was situated in middle-north was very good because due to been on very land it was save from flood. Main feature of this land part was that it was very suitable for journey with Saryu –Ghagra.this palace was 20 doors and on every door there was one commander of Ram’s army. These door name was on the name of commander name and there name are same that is pervious. In Ayodhya mahatma description about Ramkot is that “on the main palace door there was the presence of Hanuman and its south there was Sugriva and its there was Angadand near him there was Susen. In the east there was a temple Navratan and its there was Gavaksh. In the west side there was Ddhichkraand near them Satibal and near them Gandh madan, Sarmbha and Panas was.
In the north side of fort there was Vibhishan and his wife Sarama.in its east there was Matarajendra and its east part Dividhi. In its south Jambvan and Keshari. They protect the fort from every where. In this fort there was home of Raja Dashrath and its there queen and there sons. Although it is very hard to ditect all doors in all of those only four is remain. These are-Hanumangadi, Sugriv tila, Angad tila, Mat rajendrawhich indicate towards border of old fort. In the fort there is kanaka bavan,Ratan shihashan bhavan, decoration bhavan,Kakai kop bhavan, Sita kitchen,Bharat raj mahal,Ram court,Dashrat wish home is appear in present time which is revamp by king Chadragupt II .
Although made making of present places is new, but part of ancient fort is enough material for archyology. Near this fort there is many ponds also in it Vibhisan pond, Dantdhvavn pond, Vidhapond, Hanuman pond is alive today.
Around the Ayodhya city there is trench which is full of water to save e the city from invaders. In the fort there are huge doors. There was specific name of these doors. In the town there was broad road and around the road there was shop and houses. Daily roads and street was has to clear by the worker. And after the clearance there was arrangement of flowers distribution over road. To illuminate the there was arrangement of light trees. There were many roads square
After some distance where people use to talk. There was abundance of houses. Many decorated house flourish the city. This way the part Ayodhya, palace is made like that it seems that it is hectoangle. In house making literature it is like shila KO dand.
After the Ram it becomes godless. In budha period it was meaningless. Gutam Buddha has great relation with this city. The resident of Ayodhay was great follower of bhudha.they arranged a hut around the Ayodhya in peace full atmosphere. In Ayodhya he developed his doctrine and spent rainy days here. In badha literature Ayodhya is Sakat and huge. In the period of Nand it was a prospers city. According to Kathasaritsagar here was a troop of nand. In reference of Mauray period there is no evidence of it but still from here Maurya period coins has founded. It evident that Ayodhya was political center of that time of Nand. In first century A.D it was under the commanded of regional power and later it becomes part of Kushan. After that there rise an other raj vansha. Its old traditional value has diminished over the period of time. In the end of fourth century and third century it has abolished. There was hard to know the capital of it. About it we can also know by this fact that when Vikramaditaya want to revamp it, it was hard to get know it border. He only got know that this city was situated on the bank of Saryu river and get to know about it border there was main indicator of Vikamaditaya (Nageshvarnath).which you can get from the old literature of Vikramaditaya. This way revampation of Ayodhya is done by Vikramaditaya.
In consequences Ayodhya was main city with Pataliputra in his period. According to Alan there has found coin of Vikramaditaya in the Ayodhya .it evident that Ayodhya was center of politics and religion. After the 6th century with the lessen power of Gupta empire the importance of it became low. In 7th century Chinese traveler came to Ayodhya.he some stup in Ayodhya, in there was stup made by Ashoka .it was near the river. Near it there was a Matha; near it west there was stup in that there were ashes of Buddha. In the south-west there was a matha in it there was 100 Buddha vihar.
After the 7th century city was destroyed. Here- there was nothing but only because of religious place it was center of religious people. So this way how many times Ayodhay become prospers and how many time it abolished no body can say. True is after the Ram it did not flourished. Only two –three temples made during the period of Vikaramaditaya. Consequently it does not retain its pride which it gains during Ram period.
Muslim periodIn eastern –middle period under the Muslim kingdom it again gain its importance. Although it was religious center for Hindu. In starting Muslim period here Srivastvas king was powerful. In that period Janam-sthan, sawrgdaur, treat ka thakur was most important. The part of Ayodhaya that is Ramkot which is region of dispute between Hindu, Muslim is important religious mark it ownership is still too decided. According to old fact the dispute about this land started since 1528 which is still running. In it there is dispute about temple, mosque making and destruction in under the judiciary. By telecommunication it here as Ram birth place/Babrimahjid dispute .this situation is apple of discord between Hindu, Muslim and region of tension of administration. In period of Akbar here was taksal. Due to be in between Agara and Bangal it was marketing root and marketing center. Besides it been a Muslim capital here no of temples increased.religoius lover Hindu established many temple of Nageshvarnath and Chandrahari. So this in the mugal period there no development happened (except Akbar period). But still here old temple remains main focus of religion of Hindu.
In the period of Nawab Shafdargang the development of Ayodhaya again started .because his minister Navlray was religious so he again reconstructed Nageshvarnath temple. In the reference of Lakshman Gi temple it is said that it was made during that period. After in period of Parvarti Nawab many temples build. Famous temple Hanuman gadi has got the shape of gadi due to effort of Tiktarya which was the minister of Ashufduala. In the period of Vagidalisha there has completed total 30 temples, which were around in the middle portion of city. It is describe that Nawab was religious. In the period of Nawab full religious freedom was prevail, consequently many temple build that period of time. In making of temple many Rajput king contributed much. Today still there are many temples which are on its decline state, which was build by Rajput king. This way Ayodhaya main religious center for Hindu and the popularity of Ramchritmans it increases, but it development settled till temple revamp.
Till this time many Muslim muhalla settled in Ayodhaya ,they settled from Lakshman ferry of Saryu to Chakratirtha.because Ayodhaya has been prime religious place for Hindu so it remain prime religious place for Hindu. It is describe that in 1756 Sirajudulla made Faizabad its capital so Ayodhaya lost its political importance and only retain its religious state.
Main development center of city has been temples. Residential area of city is from Ramkot in south from east so this way it got its expanses.